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    Massimiliano GALDIERO

    Insegnamento di MICROBIOLOGY

    Corso di laurea magistrale a ciclo unico in MEDICINA E CHIRURGIA

    SSD: MED/07

    CFU: 7,00


    Periodo di Erogazione: Secondo Semestre


    Lingua di insegnamento



    Teaching language



    The course includes the study of cellular and molecular bases of microbial pathogenicity, microorganism-host interactions, infections and immunity, antimicrobial drugs, microbial biotechnology and their applications in molecular diagnostics, cellular and molecular therapy. Fields of disciplinary interest are bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology and vaccinology.

    Textbook and course materials

    La Placa; Principi di Microbiologia Medica; Esculapio ed.
    Sherris; Microbiologia Medica; EMSI
    Murray; Microbiologia medica; 9/Ed Edra

    Course objectives

    At the end of the Microbiology course, the student must know:
    i) structure and replication cycle of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi;
    ii) laboratory procedures for the diagnosis of infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites;
    iii) principles of microbial genetics and the effects on the diffusion of resistance to drugs and on the pathogenicity of microorganisms;
    iv) defense mechanisms available to the multicellular host against infectious agents, and the mechanisms of damage to the host of the main human pathogens;
    v) the mechanism of action of the main antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic drugs and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the emergence and diffusion of the resistances;
    vi) the epidemiology, transmission modalities and pathogenesis of the infectious agents specified in the program.


    Students to profitably follow the course of Microbiology will have to possess knowledge of cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology. Furthermore, knowledge of anatomy and physiology will be necessary for an adequate understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa.

    Teaching methods


    Evaluation methods

    Evaluation of student proficiency is based on an oral test.

    Course Syllabus

    1) Part 1
    Introduction to microorganisms

    i) General bacteriology
    Morphology, structure and function of the bacterial cell.
    Bacterial growth curve, microbial fermentation, biomass production.
    The bacterial spore.
    Bacterial metabolism.
    Bacterial genetics, mutations and transfer of genetic material of bacteria.
    Pathogenicity mechanisms, virulence factors, adhesion factors, invasiveness,
    exotoxins, endotoxins, anti-phagocytic factors
    Cultivation of bacteria in the laboratory, factors that affect bacterial growth,
    culture media, microscopic examination, preparation of bacterioscopic test preparations, culture and biochemical techniques of identification of bacteria.

    ii) General virology
    Introduction to viruses, morphology and structure.
    Virus replication, adsorption, penetration, replication, maturation.
    Viral interference.
    Oncogenic viruses.
    Isolation and cultivation of viruses, cytopathic effects, virus titration.
    Viral genetics and viral vectors.

    2) Part 2
    Relations between microorganisms and hosts.
    Chemical and physical agents in the control of microorganisms.
    Antibacterial and antiviral chemotherapy.
    Serological diagnostics and molecular diagnostics.

    i) Special bacteriology
    Streptococci and Enterococci
    Listeria monocytogenes
    Bacilli and Clostridia
    Haemophilus and Bordetella
    Vibrio, Campylobacter, Helicobacter pylori
    Brucella, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Pasteurella
    Treponema, Borrelia
    Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma
    Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Coxiella

    ii) Special virology
    a) DNA Viruses: Adenoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Herpesviridae, Poxviridae,
    b) RNA viruses: Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Picornaviridae,
    Reoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Togaviridae, Coronaviridae, Arenaviridae,
    Flaviviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae.
    c) DNA or RNA viruses that use reverse transcriptase: Epadnaviridae, Retroviridae.

    iii) Mycology
    Generality, cultivation, pathogenesis of mycoses, fungi infections, diagnosis of mycoses. Mycetes of medical interest.

    iv) Parasitology
    General notions of parasitology, pathogenesis and diagnosis. Parasites of medical interest.

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